Adolescent depression has become a major public health problem with one in 33 children having clinical depression (Mental Health America). According to the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, the age when symptoms first appear is around 11 years of age. However, the first diagnosis of depression is typically not until the age of 15. Untreated, depression is linked to school failure, impaired social functioning, teen pregnancy, and suicide.
This means that it is important for parents to pay attention to changes in their children’s behavior and to listen to what their children are saying, especially since it has been shown that counseling and resilience training have been found to prevent the onset of depression disorders. By catching the signs of depression early, parents can advocate for preventative measures, which will enhance their child’s coping skills and resilience. It may also prevent the development of poor health outcomes and functional impairments, such as lower grades.
Adolescents may not show signs of depression in the same way as adults and each child may express different symptoms. Some adolescents may show signs of hopelessness, have a lack of interest in the things around them such as friends or family, or may be unable to concentrate. Still others may express their symptoms through their irritability and agitation, which can manifest themselves in the form of your child being fidgety, restless, or moving around more or less than normal. A child’s depression can also be expressed through isolating him or herself from others and spending hours watching TV, playing video games, or being on the Internet. While most adolescents display some of these behaviors, symptoms of depression are usually longer lasting and persistent.
Pediatricians, primary care providers, and counselors at a local community Mental Health Center can guide parents and children through the treatment process. Two of the most studied forms of treatment are medication and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). While both are common treatment options and have the most scientific evidence to support their effectiveness, neither option is guaranteed to be successful. It is important for parents and children to remember that treatment is a process of trial and error. If one option does not work, do not give up. Instead, pursue another option until the best match is found for your child.
A third option that is being studied more is exercise. Studies that have been conducted with adults have found a reduction in depressive symptoms in participants who were receiving the exercise treatment. Therefore, exercise may also be effective in adolescents by helping to reduce depressive symptoms.
Written by: Andrea Dunn, PhD
If you are interested in learning more about an adolescent depression study in Denver, which is examining the role of exercise to treat depression, please contact the Project Coordinator at (303) 565-4321 x3673 or visit www.DOSEforTeens.org. Additional information and resources can also be found on Facebook (facebook.com/DOSEforTeens) and Twitter (@DOSEforTeens). The study is being funded by a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health.